An introduction to the Birkeland cathode solar model Dec 28, 2017 16:15:43 GMT
Post by michaelmozina on Dec 28, 2017 16:15:43 GMT
The first serious attempt to scientifically and mathematically describe the universe from the perspective of EU/PC theory was done by Kristian Birkeland in 1908 in his landmark publication: The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition 1902–1903 (158 MB). Birkeland began his quest for knowledge of astronomy based on his observations of aurora. The beauty of the aurora piqued his curiosity and sent him on a lifelong quest to understand their origin and their cause. Birkeland and his team risked life and limb to collect data from some of the harshest environments on planet Earth, so that he could compare his in-situ magnetic field measurements during solar storms to information and data that he and his team gathered from their empirical experiments in the lab. One of the most important successful predictions which was made by Kristian Birkeland was his correct prediction that the surface of bodies in our solar system have a net negative charge with respect to 'space', including our sun, and all of the planets.
[1510.07683] Cosmic rays: direct measurements
In terms of the highest speed charged particles cruising through the universe, the fastest forms of current which we observe from space are contained in high speed positively charged ions that are constantly slamming onto the sun's atmosphere, and slamming into all of the various bodies in the solar system. About 99 percent of all high speed cosmic rays are positively charged high speed ions. Only about 1 percent of cosmic rays are pretty evenly divided between electrons and positrons, with positrons being fewer in number at the lower kinetic energy states, while composing the majority at the higher kinetic energy states.
The paper would also seem to imply that electrons are less massive, and therefore their loss of kinetic energy is more affected by Bremsstrahlung than heavier high speed ions. That would tend to explain why there's such a high ratio of ions vs the relatively low number of high speed electrons/positrons.
If we assume that the electron and positron "ambiplasma" is pretty much net neutral with respect to charge, that means that the vast majority of the inbound flow of high speed charged particles into the solar system are net positive ions of various types.
That particular observation of the relative charge of "space', tends to strongly support Birkeland's cathode solar model as do all the other successful predictions of Birkeland's cathode solar model.
Birkeland's string of successful predictions about solar physics were based on ideas and upon observations that he and his team had learned through empirical simulations in his lab. As a result of what they learned in these empirical experiments, they correctly predicted the existence of a hot corona, the presence of both types of high speed solar wind particles flowing from the sun, cathode rays/electron beams flowing from the sun, polar jets, coronal loops, field aligned Birkeland currents, including those found in planetary aurora, and electrical discharges in the solar atmosphere. All of their important predictions were later verified by satellites in space, but this didn't start to happen until the 1970's, long after Birkeland's death. Unfortunately most of his work was overlooked at the time, and most of it continues to be overlooked to this very day.
This image compares a white light photograph from one of Birkeland's terella experiments (black & white) to a Yohkoh x-ray satellite image of the sun (orange). By adding a powerful magnetic field inside of his solar terrella, Birkeland was able to concentrate the electrical discharges into large "arcs" which were located in two distinct bands in the northern and southern hemisphere much as we observe during the active phase of the solar cycle.
Birkeland was indeed way ahead of his time. He was even one of the first individuals to successfully predict that a "transmutation of elements" (fusion today) was the energy source of the sun.